By Asami Miketa, Keywan Riahi, Richard Alexander Roehrl, Leo Schrattenholzer
Sustainable improvement and worldwide weather swap have figured prominently in medical research and foreign policymaking because the early Nineteen Nineties. This booklet formulates expertise recommendations that may result in environmentally sustainable power structures, in response to an research of worldwide weather switch matters utilizing the idea that of sustainable improvement. The authors concentrate on environmentally suitable, long term know-how advancements in the worldwide power process, whereas additionally contemplating elements of monetary and social sustainability. The authors examine a great number of substitute situations and illustrate the variations among those who meet the standards for sustainable improvement and people who don't. due to their research, they determine numerous promising socio-economic and environmental improvement paths which are in keeping with sustainable improvement. One sustainable-development situation and its coverage implications are then awarded intimately from a know-how switch viewpoint. The authors suggest formidable ambitions for expertise adoption which are judged to accomplish the specified socio-economic and environmental objectives. even supposing the optimum coverage combine to pursue those ambitions is obviously country-specific, the authors recommend that energy-related R&D that results in expertise functionality advancements and the promoting of expertise adoption in area of interest markets are the coverage thoughts with the intention to yield the main major long term advantages. Policymakers, economists and researchers engaged on sustainability, strength economics, and expertise switch and innovation will welcome this topical and hugely readable booklet.
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Extra resources for Achieving a sustainable global energy system: identifying possibilities using long-term energy scenarios
A1B The A1B scenario features ‘balanced’ progress of all primary-energy resources and all energy conversion technologies from energy supply to end use. Specific technology costs decrease significantly5 for solar photovoltaic, fuel cells, hydrogen and wind technologies, and for liquid fuel production from coal or oil/gas. The A1 scenario assumes plentiful energy resources and high improvement rates for extraction, conversion and transport technologies. This initially results in the use of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels, which later are increasingly replaced by options that do not emit carbon dioxide.
Both scenario sets, the sustainable-development and the stabilization scenarios, cluster in the range of 4 to 7 GtC in 2100. Current annual anthropogenic sulphur emissions have been estimated at between 65 and 85 million tons (MtS), for instance by Smith et al. (1998) and Grübler (1998). , 1995). 9). Sooner or later, sulphur emissions begin to decrease in all scenarios, ranging from immediate decrease in the B1 scenarios to more gradual, later and less stringent controls in the A2 scenario, for instance.
For a survey including 42 learning rates of energy technologies, see McDonald and Schrattenholzer (2001). 2. The demand categories are industry thermal, industry non-thermal, residential/ commercial thermal, residential/commercial non-thermal, feedstocks, non-commercial and transport. B. K. H. Williams (1988), Energy for a Sustainable World, New Delhi: Wiley Eastern. Grübler, A. and N. Nakic´enovic´ (1994), International Burden Sharing in Greenhouse Gas Reduction, RR-94-9, Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
Achieving a sustainable global energy system: identifying possibilities using long-term energy scenarios by Asami Miketa, Keywan Riahi, Richard Alexander Roehrl, Leo Schrattenholzer