By Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman
Because the 3rd major reason behind dying within the usa, stroke debts for one in each fifteen deaths and is the main explanation for incapacity within the kingdom. Compiled by way of a popular editorial workforce, this reference bridges the distance among easy technological know-how and sufferer care protocols, and collects forty three expertly written chapters that variety from laboratory-based examine on animal types to the development, mechanisms, remedy, and diagnosis of illnesses resembling subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focal ischemic stroke, and international cerebral ischemia.
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Extra resources for Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy)
Stroke 1979; 10:638 – 644. 55. Clower BR, Smith RR, Haining JL, Lockard J. Constrictive endarteropathy following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 1981; 12:501–508. 56. Boisvert DP, Pickard JD, Graham DI, Fitch W. Delayed effects of subarachnoid hemorrhage on cerebral metabolism and the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia in the primate. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1979; 42:892–898. 57. Fitch W, Pickard JD, Tamura A, Graham DI. Effects of hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside on the cerebral circulation before, and one week after, the subarachnoid injection of blood.
Standardization of blood volumes is critical to induce reproducible vasospasm with these methods. Disadvantages of this model, compared to clot placement techniques, include the lack of a contralateral control vessel and the high variability in the severity and course of the induced vasospasm. Models using rupture, puncture, or avulsion of the intracranial vessels were used in the past (55–58), but the high mortality rates and the limited reproducibility of vasospasm have been discouraging. RABBIT MODELS The first use of rabbits for the study of vasospasm was reported in 1969 (59).
Surg Neurol 1989; 32:408 – 417. 65. Foley PL, Caner HH, Kassell NF, Lee KS. Reversal of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasoconstriction with an endothelin receptor antagonist. Neurosurgery 1994; 34:108 –112; discussion 112–103. 66. Roux S, Loffler BM, Gray GA, Sprecher U, Clozel M, Clozel JP. The role of endothelin in experimental cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery 1995; 37:78–85; discussion 85–76. 67. Wanebo JE, Arthur AS, Louis HG, et al. Systemic administration of the endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC 11251 attenuates cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: dose study and review of endothelin-based therapies in the literature on cerebral vasospasm.
Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy) by Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman