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By Lower S. K.

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The Gibbs free energy, G" completes the scheme, It is defined as (; = U - 7'S + I) V 50 (41 ) Entropy: how it is measured and used Table 3 Maxwell's thermodynamic relations Quantity Symbol and appropriate variables Internal U(S, V) Definition Differential relationship Corresponding Maxwell relation dU= TdS-pdV energy Enthalpy I/(S,p) H= U+pV dH= TdS+ Vdp Helmholtz free energy F(T, V) F= U- TS dF= - SdT- pdV Gibbs G(T,p) G= U- TS +pV dG free energy =- SdT+ Vdp Then dG = -SdT+ Vdp so that (42) The appropriate variables for G are T and p; because these are often very convenient variables to work with .

B) The Carnot cycle on the p-V diagram of a gas. 0A is the temperature of the heat source and 08 that of the heat sink. The letters on the V axis correspond to the positions of the piston in Figure 1(a). X is the starting point. From these ideas it is clear that an efficient heat engine must be so designed that there are no wasteful heat flows during its operation. When heat has to be transferred from, say, the furnace to the working substance in the engine, this must be done while both bodies are very nearly at the same temperature.

How much heat is given out at the low temperature and what is the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine? Q2 A house i~ heated by means of a reversible heat engine acting as a heat pump. The outside temperature is 270 K and the inside temperature is 300 K. If when the house is heated by conventional electric space heaters 10 kW of power is used, how much power is consumed by the ideal heat pump to maintain the same temperature? Q3 Two identical bodies of constant heat capacity are initially at temperatures T 1 and T2 .

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Liquids and their vapors by Lower S. K.


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